Douglas Scott Cairns

 

                                                               Montana State University

                                       Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

                                                                  Bozeman, MT 59717

                                                                       (406) 994-6050

                                                                       (406) 994-6292

                                                             dcairns@me.montana.edu

CAREER OBJECTIVES

Continue development of analytical, design, manufacturing, and testing methodologies for industry, government, and academia needs. To equip engineering students with industrial, academic, and government knowledge for successful careers in research, design, analysis, and manufacturing. To enable emerging applications of composite materials to primary structure, from conception to commercialization.

 

 

EDUCATION

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Ph.D., 1987 in Aeronautics and Astronautics, minor in applied mathematics (advanced numerical methods). Thesis title, Impact and Post-Impact Response of Kevlar/Epoxy and Graphite/Epoxy Structures. Research included the development of a consistent analytical and experimental design approach for assessing the impact response, the damage produced from impact, and the post-impact residual strength of advanced composite structures. (Research sponsored by the FAA, project required management of several students supported by program.)

 

University of Wyoming

M.S., 1981 in Mechanical Engineering. Thesis title, Moisture and Thermal Expansion of Composite Materials. Research included development of a numerically controlled test facility and nonlinear micromechanics analysis of polymer-based composite materials subjected to hygrothermal loading. (Research sponsored by  U.S. Army.)

 

B.S., 1978 in Mechanical Engineering, minor in English. Senior research project on the design and manufacture of a safe, convertible ski binding for ski mountaineering and downhill skiing; designs reduced to practice via demonstration hardware.

 

On Dean's Honor Role for academic achievement.

 

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

 

Faculty

                1999-Present, Professor of Mechanical Engineering

            Montana State University, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

            Teach undergraduate and graduate mechanics and design courses. Perform basic research on the performance of composite structures design, analysis, manufacturing, and testing. Chairman, Mechanical Engineering Graduate Studies Committee. Adjunct Professor of Chemical Engineering (only non-Chem E allowed to chair Chemical Engineering graduate student committees). Faculty supervisor, Mechanical Engineering Student Machine Shop.

 

1995-1999, Associate Professor (Research Associate Professor 1995-1996), Montana State University, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

Taught undergraduate and graduate mechanics and design courses. Performed basic research on the performance of composite structures design, analysis, manufacturing, and testing. Co-Director for Montana Wind Energy Consortium (Composite Wind Turbine Blades), Outstanding Instructor Award in Mechanical Engineering for academic years 1996-97 and 1997-98.  

 

1989-1995, Adjunct Professor, Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Civil Engineering, University of Utah

Taught graduate classes in airframe structural design, variational principles,

continuum mechanics, elasticity, as well as lower level undergraduate courses. Developed and implemented new courses entitled "Airframe Structural Design" and "Introduction to Structural Mechanics." Served as committee member and advisor for three M.S. and two Ph.D. graduates in CE, ME, and Physics.

 

Industrial

1987-1995, Research Associate, Hercules Advanced Materials and Systems Company, Magna, UT

 Youngest Research Associate at Hercules and Manager, Advanced Composites Technology Department. Responsibilities included developing advanced testing, process, and analytical methodologies to understand advanced composite materials as applied to structural performance. Primary charter was to understand advanced materials as applied to primary structure. Managed a research department with a computational mechanics group, a data acquisition and control group, an experimental stress analysis group, and a materials processing research group. Funding level over $1.5 MM/year. In 1988, most monies came from IR&D. By 1995, only $250K was funded internally; the rest through government and industry contracts as a consequence of the group’s reputation. Facilities include 3 servo-hydraulic mechanical testing machines, 60,000 line/in moire interferometry experimental stress analysis laboratory, photomicrograph image analyzer,  thermo-mechanical analyzer for viscoelastic material properties, coefficient of thermal expansion interferometer, as well as specialized testing equipment, including a unique thick composite ring testing facility capable of loading rings in compression up to 20,000 psi external pressure, and a unique dynamic fracture testing facility. 1992 recipient of the Hercules Research Fellow Award (corporate award for outstanding achievement; award comes with money to support additional basic research). 1993 recipient of Hercules Board of Directors' Excellence in Research. Technical Advisor for Spirit of AmericaTM World Speed Record Team (a new, experimental, hypersonic car). Recipient of Hercules Performance Shares (a stock option award for outstanding technical achievement). Patent filed in 1994 for an all composite prosthetic hip implant (awarded in 1996, Cairns, et. al., Composite Femoral Implant having Increased Neck Strength, US Patent Number: 5,522,904, Issued Jun. 4, 1996).

 

1995-1999, Research Associate,  Hexcel Materials Corporation, Dublin, CA

            Consult for technical problem solving in the development, manufacturing, and processing of advanced materials. Develop strategic business plans for applications of materials to military and commercial aerospace, industrial, and sporting goods products.

 

1990-present, Chief Scientist and Board Member, Radius Engineering, Salt Lake City, UT

Primary responsibilities include technical consultation, participation in Board of Directors activities, and development of the technology roadmap for Radius. Radius Engineering is a profitable engineering firm devoted to serving the advanced composites industry for process development, advanced tooling and structural analysis. In a typical scenario, Radius provides engineering services and develops processing workstations with a technology transfer package. At the completion of a project, a company is "production-ready" for processing advanced materials into structure. Radius has major contracts with Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Lockheed, Northrop, Brunswick Defense and the Air Force as well as other commercial and aerospace firms.

 

 

 

1982-1984, Senior Engineer, Hercules Aerospace Division, Magna, UT

Responsibilities included the design and analysis of advanced composite aerospace structures. Specific responsibilities included the design and analysis of satellite and space structure. In addition, accomplishments included the development of joint design methodologies for thick, advanced composite primary structure, and establishing all damage tolerance criteria for the NASA-sponsored, graphite/epoxy solid rocket booster development program for the space shuttle (primary, man-rated structure).

 

1979-1980, Full Time Staff Engineer, University of Wyoming

Responsibilities included identification and quantification of failure mechanisms of graphite/epoxy laminates under compression-compression and hygrothermal fatigue loading. Joint industrial and academic research program between the University of Wyoming and Northrop, Inc. (Research sponsored by U.S. Navy, NADC.)

 

BACKGROUND

Born in St. Louis, MO. Married, no children. Interests include mountain climbing, skiing, hiking, automobiles, and theater. Member, ASME (Member of Composites Committee, Materials Division, Member, Wind Energy Technology Committee), AIAA (Senior Member, Chairman of Materials Technical Committee 1996-1997; Contributing author of 1993 materials section of AIAA White Paper to Congress, Author of 1994 Year in Review: Materials), ASEE, SEM, SAMPE, American Society for Composites (Executive Board Member), and the honorary societies of Sigma Gamma Tau and Sigma Xi. Industrial Advisory Board, Civil Engineering, at the University of Utah, 1993-1995. Corporate Sponsor and Advisor, Accelerated Science Education Program for Secondary Education in Utah, 1988-1995.

 

 


The following is an overview of career program and project highlights from 1979-present. This list is an overview of career progression including individual contributions and project management. These highlights illustrate increased responsibilities with a substantial breadth of sponsors. In particular, these highlights illustrate a long-term and commitment to engineering research.

 

CAREER PROGRAM/PROJECT MANAGEMENT HIGHLIGHTS

 

Project                                                                                                            Sponsor        

1979

Compression fatigue analysis of F18 vertical stabilizer                                    Navy, Northrop

1981

Preliminary design and analysis of composite/metallic joints                           NASA, Hercules

  (Preliminary analysis for Space Shuttle booster filament wound

  case [FWC] program; replacement for metallic booster)      

Fracture of thick composites                                                                            Hercules, Boeing

Thermal expansion analysis of advanced composites                         Hercules, Ball

Aerospace

1982

Failure criteria for thin-walled composite tubes                                                DoD

Development of cylinders for multi-axial fracture testing                                  Hercules IR&D

Implementation of cylinders for multi-axial fracture testing                               Hercules IR&D

Design and analysis of thick composite joints                                      NASA  

Damage tolerance of thick composites (Composite Shuttle Boosters) NASA

Buckling of anisotropic shells                                                                           Army

Statistical analysis of failure in thin composite tubes                                       DoD

 

1983

Failure criteria for thick composite joints (FWC)                                              NASA

Damage tolerance of thick composites (FWC)                                     NASA

 

1984

Fracture control plan (damage tolerance) for primary, man-rated                   NASA

  composite structure (FWC)

Thick composite joint optimization (FWC)                                                        NASA

Manufacture modeling of filament wound structures                                        Hercules IR&D

 

December 1987

Impact damage modeling of composite structures                                           Hercules IR&D

Optimization of constituent properties                                                  Hercules IR&D

  for fracture performance of multiphase materials

 

1988

Toughening mechanisms in multi-phase materials                                          Hercules IR&D

Longevity of composite structures (fatigue)                                                     Hercules IR&D

Damage tolerance modeling of composite structures                          Hercules IR&D

Manufacturing/performance interactions of advanced                                     Hercules IR&D

  composite materials and structures

Influence of fiber/matrix interphase on tensile strength                                    Hercules, Navy

Development of interferometry system for precision                                        Hercules,DoD

  thermal expansion measurements                

Thick composites in compression                                                                    Hercules, ARPA

Cure kinetics of advanced composites                                                            Hercules, Boeing        

Fiber optic sensors for adaptive structures                                                     Air Force

 

 

CAREER PROGRAM/PROJECT MANAGEMENT HIGHLIGHTS (cont.)

 

Project                                                                                                                        Sponsor        

1989   

Experimental stress analysis of composite structures                          Hercules,

Mc Donnell

Aircraft Corporation,

DARPA

Carbon fiber manufacture modeling                                                                Hercules IR&D

Prepreg manufacture modeling                                                                       Hercules IR&D

New applications of composites to primary aerospace structures                    Hercules/DoD

Manufacturing/structural property relationships                                               DARPA, McDonnell

Aircraft

Process modeling of in-situ curing of thermosetting resin systems                  Hercules IR&D

  for high speed manufacturing of composite structures

Fracture properties of isogrid structures manufactured via                             NASA

              fiber placement

Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) manufacture modeling                                    Hercules IR&D

Image analysis for manufacturing                                                                    Hercules         

 

1990                           

Multi-purpose sensor for advanced composite structures                               Hercules IR&D

Process modeling                                                                                            Hercules IR&D

Chemical exposure modeling in a manufacturing environment                        Hercules IR&D

Carbon fiber/matrix interphases                                                                       Naval Research Laboratory

Influence of fiber/matrix interphase degradation on fracture                            NASA

Precision measurements of dimensional stability of composite                        DoD

  structures over a wide environmental range

 

1991

Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) of Advanced                                NASA, Boeing

  Aircraft Fuselage Structure                                       

Multi-phase CSM fracture modeling                                                                 Hercules IR&D

Damage tolerance for impact of composite structures                         Hercules IR&D

Applications of multi-purpose sensor for adaptive structures              DARPA, McDonnell Aircraft

Development of a specialty hydrostatic test facility                                          Hercules R&D,

 for compression testing of composite structures                                            McDonnell Aircraft,

DARPA

CSM modeling of joints for composites in compression                                   DARPA, McDonnell Aircraft

1992

Manufacturing/performance relationships of composites                                 Hercules IR&D

Influence of manufacturing on dimensional stability of                         DoD

  advanced composite structures

Dynamical fracture properties of materials                                                      GE Aircraft Engines

Processing-induced stresses during manufacturing                                        Boeing Helicopters

Development of specialty hybrid finite elements for modeling              NASA/Boeing

  processing/performance interactions of advanced

  composite structures

Analysis and testing of ring-stiffened structures for                                         ARPA,

  applications of composites to deep submersible structures                           ICI Structures

 

 

CAREER PROGRAM/PROJECT MANAGEMENT HIGHLIGHTS (cont.)

 

Project                                                                                                                        Sponsor        

 

1993   

Dynamical fracture properties of advanced composites                                  GE Aircraft Engines

Manufacturing/fracture interaction properties                                                  Navy, McDonnell Aircraft

Manufacturing/mechanical performance relationships of

 structures manufactured via fiber placement                                     Northrop  Corporation

Influence of manufacturing parameters on strength of carbon fibers   Hercules IR&D

Influence of manufacturing parameters on mechanical performance of           Hercules IR&D

  prepreg composite systems

Statistical image analysis processing                                                               Hercules, Navy

Expert systems for a manufacturing environment                                            Hercules IR&D

Statistical Process Control (SPC) in a manufacturing environment                  Hercules IR&D

The influence of manufacturing parameters on dynamical fracture                 GE Aircraft Engines

The consequence of inhomogeneity as an independent parameter on           NASA, Boeing

  fracture of advanced composite structures

Structural analysis of hypersonic land vehicles                                               Hercules IR&D

Manufacturing optimization for performance of in-situ consolidated                ARPA,

  thermoplastics for primary structure, image analysis                         (Hercules/

                                                                                                                        DuPont joint

 program)

Structural modeling of golf clubs                                                                      Calloway Golf,

Manufacture modeling of golf shafts, image analysis                           Uni-fiber,

True Temper Sports

1994

In-situ monitoring of quality of advanced composite materials                         ARPA,

  and structures                                                                                               Hercules IR&D

Applications of advanced composites to civil infrastructure                             ARPA, Hercules IR&D

Combining expert systems and SPC in a manufacturing environment Hercules IR&D

Influence of processing on the tensile strength of carbon fibers                      Hercules

Development of FTIR sensing of high temperature manufacturing                  Hercules         

  environments

Affordable Composites for Aircraft Propulsion                                     ARPA, Pratt &

Engine cowlings                                                                       Whitney

Fan case containment                                                 Aircraft

Fan exit case                                                                           Engines

Damage tolerance criteria/certification

Manufacturing/fracture performance influence of advanced                GE Aircraft         composite materials, image analysis                                                             Engines

Fracture properties of structures manufactured via                                         ARPA,

  in-situ consolidation of advanced thermoplastics                                           General

                                                                                                                        Dynamics

Electric Boat

Mechanical testing of composites for applications to space structures            DoD

Development of advanced composites for lightweight armor               FMC, Army

 

1995

Design, analysis, and testing of advanced, offshore                                       NIST

   oil patch structure

Development of reinforcing schemes for civil infrastructure retrofit                 ARPA, NIST,   

              and repair                                                                                                      Hercules IR&D

CAREER PROGRAM/PROJECT MANAGEMENT HIGHLIGHTS (cont.)

 

Project                                                                                                            Sponsor        

1995 (cont.)

Statistical fracture performance of rocket motors                                            Hercules IR&D

Design, analysis and testing of aircraft propulsion structure                           ARPA

Statistical image analysis                                                                                 Hercules, Orbital Sciences Corp.,

Air Force

 

1996

Composite Wind Turbine Development,                                                          DOE/EPSCoR

Co-Director, Montana Wind Energy Cluster                                                     Montana

            Design of Affordable Composites for Propulsion                                             DARPA/Alliant

                                                                                                                                    TechSystems

Damage Modeling of Composite Materials and Structures                              NSF

Development of a New Course Entitled “Aircraft Structures”                            NASA/Space Grant

                                                                                                                                    Consortium     

1997

Composite Wind Turbine Development,                                                          DOE/EPSCoR

Co-Director, Montana Wind Energy Cluster                                                     Montana

New Materials for Turbofan Propulsion                                                            NSF/MONTS

Minimum Gage Composite Structures                                                  Boeing Helicopters

The Influence of Manufacturing Variances on Composite Structures  Boeing Commercial Airplane Group

New Materials for Ultra High-Bypass Aerofan Blades                           DARPA, Pratt & Whitney Aircraft

Engines

Damage Resistance and Damage Tolerance of Composite Materials Hexcel Materials, Inc.

Resin Transfer Molding for Composite Wind Turbine Structures                     Sandia National Lab

MSU/NREL Summer Internship Program                                                          National Renewable Energy Lab

Composite Materials for Infrastructure                                                 Montana Department of Transportation

Affordable Composites for Propulsion                                                 Alliant TechSystems

 

1998

Composite Wind Turbine Development,                                                          DOE/EPSCoR

Co-Director, Montana Wind Energy Cluster

New Materials for Turbofan Propulsion                                                            NSF/MONTS

Minimum Gage Composite Structures                                                  Boeing Helicopters

The Influence of Manufacturing Variances on Composite Structures  Boeing Commercial

                                                                                                                                    Airplane Group

New Materials for Ultra High-Bypass Aerofan Blades                           DARPA, Pratt

& Whitney Aircraft

Engines

Damage Resistance and Damage Tolerance of Composite Materials Hexcel Materials, Inc.

Resin Transfer Molding for Composite Wind Turbine Structures                     Sandia National Lab

MSU/NREL Summer Internship Program                                                          National Renewable Energy Labs

Composite Materials for Infrastructure                                                 Montana

Department of Transportation

Carbon Fiber Process Modeling                                                                      Hexcel

                                                                                                                                    Materials, Inc. 

CAREER PROGRAM/PROJECT MANAGEMENT HIGHLIGHTS (cont.)

 

Project                                                                                                                        Sponsor        

 

1999

            Affordable Composites for Propulsion                                                 DARPA, Pratt &

                                                                                                                                    Whitney Aircraft

                                                                                                                                    Engines

            Resin Transfer Molding                                                                                   Sandia National Lab

            Composites for Infrastructure                                                                          Montana Department

                                                                                                                                    of Transportation

            Composite Wind Turbine Blade Development –                                              DOE

            Design, Analysis, and Manufacturing

            Crippling of Composites                                                                                   Boeing Helicopters

            Manufacturing Variances in Composite Structures                                          Boeing Commercial

                                                                                                                                    Airplane Group

            Resin Transfer Molding Equipment                                                                  Sandia

 

2000

Affordable Composites for Propulsion                                                 DARPA, Pratt &

                                                                                                                                    Whitney Aircraft

                                                                                                                                    Engines

            Resin Transfer Molding                                                                                   Sandia National Lab

            Composites for Infrastructure                                                                          Montana Department

                                                                                                                                    of Transportation

            Composite Wind Turbine Blade Development –                                              DOE

            Design, Analysis, and Manufacturing

            Crippling of Composites                                                                                   Boeing Helicopters

            Manufacturing Variances in Composite Structures                                          Boeing Commercial

                                                                                                                                    Airplane Group

            Damage Modeling in Composites                                                                    NASA Space Grant

                                                                                                                                    Consortium

2001

            Resin Transfer Molding                                                                                   Sandia National Lab

            Slender Hypervelocity Aerothermodynamic Research Probe               NASA Ames

            Composite Wind Turbine Blade Development –                                              DOE

            Composites Characterization and Statistical Modeling                         ONR    

            of Composite Materials Failure Processes

 

2002

            Resin Transfer Molding                                                                                   Sandia National Lab

            Slender Hypervelocity Aerothermodynamic Research Probe               NASA Ames

            Composite Wind Turbine Blade Development –                                              DOE

            Wind Turbine Research in Montana                                                                EES

 

2003

            Resin Transfer Molding                                                                                   Sandia National Lab

            Wind Turbine Research in Montana                                                                EES

            Low Cost Composite Materials and Structures                                                ONR

 

 

           

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                   

 

 

PUBLICATIONS AND PRESENTATIONS

 

                                                      Peer-Reviewed Publications

 

Cairns, D.S. and Adams, D.F., "Moisture and Thermal Expansion of Composite Materials," Proceedings of the JANNAF Composite Motor Case and Structures and Mechanical Behavior Meeting, Hill Air Force Base, April 1982.

 

Cairns, D.S. and Adams, D.F., "Moisture and Thermal Expansion of Unidirectional Composite Materials and the Epoxy Matrix," Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, Vol. 2, Technomic Publishing Co., Westport, CT, October, 1983, pp. 239-255.; reprinted as a book chapter in Environmental Effects on Composite Materials, Edited by George Springer, Technomic Publishing Co., Westport, CT, 1984.

 

Toombes, G.R, Swanson, S.R. and Cairns, D.S., "Biaxial Testing of Composite Tubes," Experimental Mechanics, Volume 25, Number 2, June 1985, pp. 186-192.

 

Lagace, P.A. and Cairns, D.S., "Tensile Response of Laminates to Implanted Delaminations," Materials Technology ‘87, SAMPE, April 1987, pp. 720-729.

 

Cairns, D.S. and Lagace, P.A., "Thick Composite Plates Subjected to Lateral Loading," Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 54, No. 3, September 1987, pp. 611-616.

 

Nuismer, R.J., Bucinell, R., Morgan, M.E. and Cairns, D.S., "Scaling Impact Response and Damage in Composite Rocket Motor Cases, Proceedings of the JANNAF Composite Motor Case Subcommittee, San Francisco, CA, May 17-19, 1988.

 

Cairns, D.S., "Toughening Mechanisms in Multi-Phase Media," 34th International SAMPE Symposium and Exhibition, Reno, NV, May 8-11, 1989.

 

Cairns, D.S. and Lagace, P.A., "Transient Response of Graphite/Epoxy and Kevlar/Epoxy to Impact," AIAA Journal, Vol 27, No. 11, November 1989, pp. 1590-1596.

 

Nelson, R.H. and Cairns, D.S., "Prediction of Dimensional Changes in Composite Laminates During Cure," 34th International SAMPE Symposium and Exhibition, Reno, NV, May 8-11, 1989.

 

Abdallah, M.G., Cairns, D.S. and Gascoigne, H.E., "A New Test Method for External, Hydrostatic Composite Ring Structures," Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics (SEM), March 1990.

 

Cairns, D.S. and Lagace, P.A., "Residual Tensile Strength of Graphite/Epoxy and Kevlar/Epoxy with Impact Damage," Composite Materials: Testing and Design, Ninth Volume, American Society for Testing and Materials Special Technical Publication 1059, 1990, pp. 48-63.

 

Cairns, Douglas S., "Prediction of Fracture Toughness of Multi-Phase Materials,” Proceedings of the AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC 31st Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, April 1990.

 

Campbell, J.F., Cairns, D.S., Abdallah, M.G., Vanderheiden, E.G. and Martinez, L.A., "A Multi-purpose Sensor for Composite Laminates,” Journal of Composite Materials, vol. 26, no. 3, 1992.

 

Cairns, D.S, Huff, R.D. and Clayton, C.D., "Multi-variate Process Modeling of Advanced Composite Materials,” Composites Manufacturing, Volume 1, Number 4, December 1990.

 

Cairns, D.S., "Mechanisms of Fracture and Toughening in Multi-Phase Materials,” Proceedings of the 22nd International SAMPE Technical Conference, Volume 22, November 6-8, Boston, MA, 1990.

 

Cairns, D.S. and Campbell, J.F., "A Multi-purpose Sensor for Composite Structures,” Proceedings of the AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC 32nd Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, April 1991.

 

Cairns, D.S., "Static and Dynamic Strain Energy Release Rates in Toughened Thermosetting Composite Laminates," Proceedings of the 9th DoD/NASA/FAA Conference on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design, November 4-7, 1991.

 

Cairns, D.S. and Lagace, P.A., "A Consistent Engineering Design Methodology for Composite Structures Subjected to Impact," Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, Volume 11, No. 4, April 1992, pp. 400-412.

 

Cairns, D.S., "In-situ Sensing and Monitoring of Composite Structures,” Proceedings of ICCM VIII, Honolulu, Hawaii, July 1991.

 

Abdallah, M.G., Gascoigne, H.A. and Cairns, D.S., "Testing and Fracture of Thick Composites in Compression,” Proceedings of ICCM VIII, Honolulu, Hawaii, July, 1991.

 

Cairns, D.S. "A Simple, Elasto-Plastic Contact Law for Composites", Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, Vol. 10, Technomic Publishing Co., Westport, CT, July 1991, pp. 423-433.

 

Cairns, D.S., "Static and Dynamic Mode II Strain Energy Release Rates in Toughened Thermosetting Composite Laminates," ASTM Journal of Composites Technology & Research, Volume 14, No. 1, Spring 1992, pp. 37-42.

 

Cairns, D.S., Abdallah, M.G., and Minguet, P.J., "Theoretical and Experimental Response of Composite Laminates with Delaminations Loaded in Compression," Proceedings of the AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC 33rd Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, April 13-15, 1992.

 

Cairns, D.S., Walker, T., Ilcewicz, L.B., "Response of Automated Tow Placement Laminates to Stress Concentrations," Proceedings of the Third Advanced Composites Technology Conference, June 1992.

 

Wilden, K, Walker, T., Cairns, D. Grant, C., "Manufacturing of Automated Tow Placement Structures," Proceedings of the Third Advanced Composites Technology Conference, June 1992.

 

S.R. Swanson, D.S. Cairns, M.E. Guyll, and D. Johnson, "Compression Fatigue Response for Carbon Fiber with Conventional and Toughened Epoxy Matrices with Damage," ASME Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, Volume 115, No. 1, January 1993, pp. 116-121.

 

Cairns, D.S., Minguet, P.J. and Ilcewicz, L.B. "Fracture Performance of Automated Tow Placed Structures," Proceedings of the 34th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, April 1993.

 

Cairns, D.S., Walker, T., and Ilcewicz, L.B., "Consequence of Material Inhomogeneity on Fracture of Automated Tow Placed Structures with Stress Concentrations," Proceedings of the Fourth Advanced Composites Technology Conference, June 1993.

 

Cohen, D., Cairns, D.S., Avery, W.B., Abdallah, M.G., "Analysis and Testing of Thick Automated Tow Placed (ATP) Joint Structures," Proceedings of the Fourth Advanced Composites Technology Conference, June 1993.

 

Ilcewicz, L.B., Walker, T.H., Murphy, D.P., Dopker, B., and Cairns, D.S., "Tension Fracture of Laminates for Transport Fuselage - Part 4: Damage Tolerance Analysis," Proceedings of the Fourth Advanced Composites Technology Conference, June 1993.

 

Cairns, D.S., Minguet, P.J. and Ilcewicz, L.B., "Fracture Scaling Parameters of Inhomogeneous Microstructure in Composite Structures," Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM-9), July 12-16, 1993, pp. 225-233.

 

Cairns, D.S., Walker, T., Ilcewicz, L.B., "Far-Field and Near-Field Strain Response of Fiber Placed Structures to Stress Concentrations," Composites Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 11, 1993, pp. 1087-1097.

 

Williams, T.O. and Cairns, D.S., "A Model for the Compressive Failure of Composite Materials," Journal of Composite Materials, vol. 28, no. 2, 1994.

 

Cairns, D.S., Abdallah, M.G., and Minguet, P.J., "Theoretical and Experimental Response of Composite Structures with Delaminations Loaded in Compression," Composite Structures, 27, 1994, pp. 431-437.

 

Cairns, D.S., "The Influence of Material Inhomogeneity on Fracture," Proceedings of the International Conference on Mesostructures, May 1994.

 

Cairns, D.S., "The Year in Review: Materials,” Aerospace America, December 1994, reviewed for publication by the AIAA Materials Technical Committee members.

 

Cairns, D.S., "The Influence of Material Inhomogeneity on Fracture," Composites, May 1995.

 

Cairns, D.S.,  Ilcewicz, L.B., Walker, T., “Fracture Scaling Parameters of  Inhomogeneous Microstructure in Composite Structures,” Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 29, No. 8, 1995.

 

Cairns, D.S., “A New Test for Compression Testing of Impregnated Tows”, Fifth Symposium on Composite Materials: Fatigue and Fracture, Roderick Martin, Editor, ASTM Special Technical Publication, ASTM, Philadelphia, PA, 1995, pp. 317-329.

 

Cairns, D.S, Practical Methodologies for Ply Drops in Composite Structures,” Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Composite Materials, The Gold Coast, Australia, July 1997.

 

J. Mandell, D. Samborsky, M. Scott, and D. Cairns, Effects of Structural Details on Delamination and Fatigue Life of Fiberglass Laminates, 1998 ASME Wind Energy Symposium Collection of Papers, Reno, NV, January 1998, pp. 323-333.

 

Cairns, D. Haugen, J. Mandell, and D. Samborsky, Fracture of Skin/Stiffner Intersections in Composite Wind Turbine Structures, 1998 ASME Wind Energy Symposium Collection of Papers, Reno, NV, January 1998, pp. 334-343.

 

Douglas S. Cairns, Del R. Humbert, and John F. Mandell, "Resin Transfer Molding of Composite Materials with Oriented Unidirectional Plies, "  Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol 30, S1359-835X(98), pp. 81-85, 1998.

 

Cairns, D.S., Mandell, J.F, Scott, M.E., Maccagnano, J.Z., "Design Considerations for Ply Drops in Composite Structures, " Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol 30, (1999), pp 523-534.

 

D. Samborsky, J. Mandell, and D. Cairns, Selection of Reinforcing Fabrics for Wind Turbine Blades,  1999 ASME Wind Energy Symposium Collection of Papers, Reno, NV, January, 1999, pp 32-43.

 

Cairns, D.S, McKittrick, L., Rabern, D., Vanluchene, D., Mandell, J.F., Design and Manufacturing Synthesis of Composite Wind Turbine Blades,  1999 ASME Wind Energy Symposium Collection of Papers, Reno, NV, January, 1999, pp 58-65.

 

D.S. Cairns, R. Larsen, A. Cook, Static and Dynamic Fracture Properties of Aerofan Blade Material Candidates, Proceedings of the 43rd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, April, 1999.

 

Mandell, J.F., Samborsky, D.D., Lei, M., Orozco,R., and Cairns, D.S. 2000 ASME Wind Energy Symposium Collection of Papers, Reno, NV, January, 2000, pp 354-356.

 

.Cairns, D.S., Sears, A., Mandell, J.F., and McKittrick, L.R., Design Considerations for Buckling of Composite Wind Turbine Blades,  2000 ASME Wind Energy Symposium Collection of Papers, Reno, NV, January, 2000, pp 375-393.

 

Cairns, D.S. and Skramstad, J., Manufacturing Process Evaluations for Composite Wind Turbine Blades, Proceedings of SAMPE 2000, May 2000.

 

Cairns, D.S., Mohaghegh, M., Cundy, V.A., Johnson, K. "A Model for an Industry/University Strategic Alliance in the Classroom, " submitted to the International Journal of Mechanical  Engineering Education, Volume 28, no. 2, April 2000, pp. 95-112.

 

Cairns, D.S., Samborsky, D.D., and Mandell, J.F. , Resin Transfer Molding in Composite Wind Turbine Blade Structures, 2001 ASME Wind Energy Symposium Collection of Papers, Reno, NV, January, 2001, pp 38-48.

 

N. Wahl, D Samborsky, J.F. Mandell and D.S. Cairns, Spectrum Fatigue and Residual Strength for Fiberglass Laminates in Tension,   2001 ASME Wind Energy Symposium Collection of Papers, Reno, NV, January, 2001, pp 49-59.

 

D.S. Cairns, Erik Larsen, J.F. Mandell, and D. Samborsky, Investigation of a Two-Stage Injection Process to Reduce the Effects of In-Plane Resin Flow, 2002 ASME Wind Energy Symposium Collection of Papers, Reno, NV, January, 2001, pp 40-46.

 

N. Wahl, D. Samborsky, J.F. Mandell, and D.S. Cairns, Effects of Modeling Assumptions on the Accuracy of Spectrum Lifetime Predictions for a Fiberglass Laminate, 2002 ASME Wind Energy Symposium Collection of Papers, Reno, NV, January, 2001, pp 19-26.

 

John F. Mandell, Douglas S. Cairns, Daniel D. Samborsky, Robert J. Morehead, Darrin J. Haugen, PREDICTION OF DELAMINATION IN WIND TURBINE BLADE STRUCTURAL DETAILS, ASME Wind Energy Symposium – A Collection of Papers, paper no. AIAA-2003-0697, January, 2003, pp 202-213, Outstanding Paper Award

 

Douglas S. Cairns, John F. Mandell, and Daniel D. Samborsky, QUANTIFICATION OF PROCESSING PARAMETERS FOR WIND TURBINE BLADES, ASME Wind Energy Symposium – A Collection of Papers, paper no. AIAA-2003-0694, January, 2003, pp 181-191.

 

 

 

Other Publications

 

Cairns, Douglas S., “The Influence of Rotary Inertia on the Impact of Composite Plates,” MIT TELAC Report 87-16, May 1987.

 

Cairns, D.S., "Mixed-Mode Fracture and Toughening in Multi-Phase Materials,” Proceedings of the ASCE Engineering Mechanics Specialty Conference, May 20-22, La Jolla, CA, 1991.

 

Lagace, P.A. and Cairns, D.S., "Understanding Impact of Composite Materials,"  Proceedings of The 2nd US-USSR Symposium on Mechanics of Composite Materials, October 1991.

 

Abdallah, M.G. and Cairns, D.S., "Various Sensor Applications for Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polymeric Piezo-Electric Film," Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Mechanics, June 7-10, 1993.

 

Cairns, D.S., “Blade Manufacturing,” Proceedings of the DOE Wind Program Subcontractor Review Meeting ’98, Boulder, CO, August 1998.

 

Cairns, D.S. and Wu, E.M., Strategic Research for Navy Composite Structures, Admiral’s Regional Review, Salt Lake City, Utah, April 2000.

 

J. F. Mandell, D.D. Samborsky, and D.S. Cairns, Fatigue of Composite Materials and Substructures for Wind Turbine Blades, Three Year Technical Report, Sandia National Labs, July 2002.

 

D. S. Cairns, Scott Rossell, Resin Transfer Molding of Composite Structures, Technical Report, Sandia National Labs, September 2002.

 

COMPOSITE MATERIALS HANDBOOK (MIL-HDBK-17), Author of Chapter 7, Damage Resistance, Durability, and Damage Tolerance, Tom Walker, Editor, Materials Science Corporation, Fort Washington, PA, 19034, February 2003.

 

 

Articles Submitted But Not Yet Published or Presented

 

N. Wahl, D. Samborsky, J.F. Mandell, and D.S. Cairns, Spectrum Fatigue and Residual Strength for Fiberglass Laminates in Tension, submitted to Journal of Solar Engineering (ASME publication), in Review                      

 

Cairns, Douglas S. and Ritter, William J., A New Test Machine and Methodology for Multi-directional Composites Characterization, accepted for publication, International Conference on Composite Materials – 14, July, 2003.

 

                              Industry and Academia Invited Presentations (examples)

 

Impact and Post-Impact Response of Advanced Composite Structures, Workshop on Damage Assessment for Case Composites, NASA Langley, February 1987.

 

Impact and Post-Impact Response of Graphite/Epoxy and Kevlar/Epoxy Composite Structures, 1st International Conference on Composite Materials and Structures for Rotorcraft, RPI, Troy, NY, April 1987.

 

Design and Analysis of Composite Structures Subjected to Impact, McDonnell Aircraft Corporation, St. Louis, MO, March 1988.

 

Parameters Affecting the Compression Performance of Unidirectional Composites with Imperfections, Boeing Aircraft Corporation, April 1988.

 

Damage Resistance and Damage Tolerance of Composite Structures Subjected to Impact, Boeing Commercial Aircraft Company, April 1988; re-presented at General Dynamics Aircraft Corporation, June, 1989.

 

Theory of Elasticity of Anisotropic Materials, McDonnell Aircraft Corporation, St. Louis, MO, May 1989.

 

Toughening Mechanisms in Multi-Phase Materials, Second Joint ASME/AIAA/ASCE Mechanics Conference, UCSD, LaJolla, CA, July 1989; re-presented at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, September, 1989 (invited presentation).

 

 

 

Design with Damping in Composite Materials, First Conference on Damping in Marine Structures, David Taylor Research Center, Annapolis, MD, November, 1989 (invited presentation).

 

Thick Composite Structures Subjected to Compressive Loading, David Taylor Research Center, November 1989 (invited presentation).

 

Process Modeling of Composite Materials, Gordon Research Conference on Composite Materials, Ventura, CA, January 1990 (invited presentation; re-presented at McDonnell Aircraft Company, February 1990).

 

A Multi-purpose Sensor for Composite Laminates, Materials, Structures and Aeroelasticity Seminar Series, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, May 7, 1990 (invited presentation, re-presented at Boeing Commercial Aircraft, May 1991)

 

A Consistent Engineering Design Methodology for Composite Structures Subjected to Impact, American Society for Composites, Fourth Technical Conference, June 1990.

 

Testing of Thick Composite Laminates, Thick Composites in Compression Workshop, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, July, 1990 (invited display).

 

Fatigue Life of Toughened Composites, Invited Seminar at G.E. Aircraft Engines, August 1990.

 

A New Test Method for Hydrostatic External Compressive Loading of Composite Ring Specimens, presented at the Office of Naval Research, August, 1990 (invited presentation).

 

Multi-Variate Process Modeling of Composites, presented at the Laboratory for Manufacturing and Productivity, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, November 1990 (invited presentation).

 

Static and Dynamic Fracture Behavior of Toughened Composite Laminates, Presented to G.E. Aircraft Engines, November, 1990, re-presented at Boeing Commercial Aircraft May 1991 (invited presentations).

 

Cairns, D.S., Campbell, J.F., Abdallah, M.G., Vanderheiden, E.G. and Martinez, L.A., "In-Situ Monitoring of Composite Laminates", AeroMat '91: Smart Structures, Sensors, and Smart Materials, May 1991 (invited presentation).

 

Response of Automated Tow Placement Laminates to Stress Concentrations, Interim Review for the Boeing Advanced Composites Technology, NASA/Langley, April 6, 1992.

 

Process Modeling of Advanced Composites, Composites Seminar Series, Texas A&M, April 1992 (invited presentation).

 

Parameters Affecting Testing and Analysis of Composite Pressure Vessels, Rockwell International (Downey, CA, under subcontract to NASA-Johnson), paid consultant, February 1993.

 

 

Cairns, D.S., Minguet, P.J., and Abdallah, M.G., "Nonlinear Response of Composite Structures with Delaminations Loaded in Compression," Presented at the First SES-ASME-ASCE Joint Meeting, June 6-9, 1993.

 

Cairns, D.S., "The Consequence of Material Architecture on the Fracture Performance of Automated Tow Placed Structures," Gordon Research Conference on Composite Materials, Invited Lecture, January 1994.

 

Designing for Impact of Composites for Ultra High Bypass Ratio Turbofans, Pratt and Whitney, June 1994.

 

Innovative Processing of Composites, Guest Lecturer, National Research Council: Committee on New Materials for Advanced Civil Aircraft, September 1994.

 

Discussion Leader, Design Methodologies for Composite Structures, Gordon Research Conference on Composite Materials, Invited Leader with Academic Scholarship, Ventura, CA, January 1996.

 

Composite Fanblade Workshop, Salt Lake City, UT, April 1996, Workshop Speaker.

 

Performance and Testing of Composite Driveshafts, DANA-Spicer, Morrison Molded Fiberglass Technical Interchange Meeting, Columbus, OH, May 1996, (invited presentation).

 

Advanced Composite Material Fan Blade Containment Cases, Pratt & Whitney Affordable Composites for Propulsion, East Hartford, CT, August 1996, (invited presentation).

 

Design and Analysis of Composite Fan Blade Containment Cases, Pratt & Whitney Affordable Composites for Propulsion, East Hartford, CT, October 1996, (invited presentation).

 

Composite Wind Turbine Blade Development Activities, DOE EPSCoR Contract Review, October 1995, 1996, and 1997.

 

Effect of Defects for Isogrid Structures, Affordable Composites for Propulsion, East Hartford, CT, November 1996, (invited presentation).

 

Damage Resistance of Advanced Composites, Hexcel/GE Composite Fan Blade Technical Interchange, December 1996, (invited presentation).

 

Invited Speaker for Boeing’s University Relations Coordinating Committee (URCC), for an Industry/University Strategic Alliance in the Classroom, June 1996.

 

Dynamic Strain Energy Release Rate in Toughened Composites, University Research Effort, DARPA Affordable Composites for Propulsion Program, West Palm Beach, FL, February 1997, (invited presentation).

 

Discussion Leader, Innovative Manufacturing for Composite Structures, Gordon Research Conference on Composite Materials, Invited Leader with Academic Scholarship, Ventura, CA, January 1998.

 

Structural Applications of Composites – A Constrained Optimization, CIBA-GEIGY Research Center, New York, January 1998.

 

Tough Materials for Lighweight Golf Shaft Applications, Taylor Made Golf, San Diego, CA, July 1998.

 

Author of over 120 reviewed industry and government contract reports, Some noteworthy examples that have received a formal review are given below.

 

Title

Sponsor

Significance

 

Identification and Quantification of Compression/Compression Fatigue Failure Mechanisms

 

Northrop Aircraft, Naval Air Development Center, Co-authored with D.F. Adams, and D.E. Walrath, 1980

 

Fatigue performance of F-18 (Hornet) vertical stabilizers, the first carbon fiber composite military aircraft.

 

 

Moisture and Thermal Expansion of Composite Materials

 

Army Materials Research Laboratory, 1981

 

The first work to perform nonlinear analysis of hygrothermal dimensional stability of composite materials.

 

 

Design and Analysis of the FWC Joint

 

NASA, Co-authored with M.E. Morgan, 1983

 

The FWC (Filament Wound Case) was developed as a follow-on to the metal case used for the solid rocket boosters (SRB) for the space shuttle. The design was necessary for a higher specific impulse for polar orbits. The design was shelved in the wake of the Challenger disaster, since all NASA Space Shuttle resources were directed there. However, the joint design is used with little modifications on the current Titan series and Delta II launch systems.

 

Fracture Control Plan for the FWC, Rev 1.

 

NASA, Co-authored with M. Riddle and M.E. Morgan, 1984

 

The certification document for the composite SRB, the largest man-rated composite structure at the time.

 

A Local/Global Dynamic Model for Damage in Composites

 

Air Force, Damage Assessment for Composite Cases (DACC), 1988

 

A unique finite element modeling technique that combined local and global shape functions for efficient dynamical modeling.

 

Users Guide to EllipM

 

Hercules Materials Company, program developed for value-added support to materials sales, 1989

 

McDonnell Douglas Aircraft (now Boeing), Boeing, General Dynamics, and Sikorsky Aircraft have used this basic software package for elliptical inclusions and delaminations in composite structures in preliminary design.

 

 

Neural Networks in Process Modeling

 

Hercules Materials Company, Co-authored with C. Clayton and R. Huff, 1991

 

An early work on neural networks in process modeling.

 

 

 

Materials Database for the Costar Program

 

NASA, Ball Aerospace, Kodak Aerospace, 1991

 

Basic design data for the COSTAR program (the fix for the Hubble telescope). Included development and qualification of the only facility in the US for wide temperature dimensional thermal stability measurements for space materials and structures.

 

 

 

 

Deep Submersibles Cure on the FlyTM Materials Database

 

Defense Advanced Projects Administration, 1992

 

Materials database for a process known as Cure on the FlyTM, a high volume manufacturing technique for large composite structures such as submarines.

 

 

 

 

Combining Expert Systems with Statistical Process Control in Manufacturing

 

 

 

Hercules Materials Company, 1995

 

 

 

Statistical Process Control for identification of production problems, Expert Systems for resolving production problems.

 

 

                                                      University Courses/Lectures

 

Alternative Variational Formulations in Solid Mechanics, (invited lecture series, Advanced Finite Elements course at the University of Utah).

 

Variational Principles for Anisotropic Plates, University of Utah, (invited lecture series for Advanced Composites course).

 

Alternative Variational Formulations for Plate Structures, University of Utah (invited lecture series for Plates course).

 

Theory of Elasticity of Anisotropic Media, University of Utah, (invited lecture series for Theory of Elasticity course).

 

Airframe Structural Design, University of Utah, (developed a new course which is at the senior/beginning graduate level which is an advanced strength of materials approach to airframe structures).

 

Continuum Mechanics, University of Utah, upper level graduate class in Continuum Mechanics; Tensor Calculus treatment of: statics, dynamics, kinematics (including curvilinear coordinates), constitutive equations, elasticity, plasticity, creep, fluids, thermodynamics, heat transfer, Calculus of Variations, general principles, etc.).

 

Statics, University of Utah, basic undergraduate course, joint CE/ME course.

 

Introduction to Structural Mechanics, University of Utah, Civil Engineering elective course to equip students with a repertoire of in-depth design and analysis skills which are not covered in basic design courses.

 

Transport Phenomena, Montana State University, required Chemical Engineering class on the aspects of mass, momentum, and heat transfer.

 

Aircraft Structures Design, Montana State University, upper level undergraduate elective course, developed in collaboration with Boeing to equip students with fundamentals of aircraft structures design and analysis.

 

Mass Transfer, Montana State University, graduate level course in mass transfer. Diffusion, convection, dispersion, mass transfer approaches.

 

Mechanical Engineering Design, Montana State University, capstone senior mechanical engineering course on design, analysis, manufacturing, and testing of engineering systems.

 

Engineering Analysis, mechanical engineering undergraduate elective course at MSU on advanced mathematical techniques for engineering systems design and analysis.

 

Design of Components, lecture module on fracture and fatigue of engineering systems.

 

Failure of Materials, graduate course in mechanical engineering and chemical engineering on failure of materials and engineering fracture mechanics.

 

Graduate Transport Phenomena, graduate course in mass, momentum, and heat transfer, theory and applications, simultaneous transport phenomena.

 

Statics and Particle Dynamics, basic undergraduate engineering course at Montana State University.

 

Composite Materials, undergraduate elective in Chemical Engineering and Mechanical Engineering at Montana State University, micromechanics, anisotropic material behavior, lamination theory, design, build, and test projects.

 

Advanced Composites, graduate course in composite materials, follows basic undergraduate course.

 

Research and Experimental Methods, required course for MSU Ph.D. candidates, lecture module on modeling and model verification of engineering systems.

 

Materials Lab, a new required undergraduate course in Mechanical Engineering at Montana State University. Developed a course which Includes labs to determine microstructure, mechanical, and thermal properties to complement the required materials course for engineering students. Course significantly modified for new curriculum by ABET site review in 2003.

 

Mechanical Behavior of Materials This is a new undergraduate course that is taught even fall semesters. In the following spring, the graduate course Failure of Materials is taught. In odd falls, the undergraduate composites course is taught, followed by the Advanced Composites course in even spring semesters. This has been a very effective approach to develop “pull-through” for talented undergraduates for our research and graduate programs.

 

 

 


Graduate Student Supervision

 

Student                                 Responsibility

 

Jay Eppinga (ChE)               on Thesis Committee

Erik Larsen                            Major Advisor, to defend  Summer 03

Dongfang Huang                   Major Advisor, completion in ’03?

Will Ritter                                Major Advisor, completion in late ’03 or ‘04

Jil Hallenberg             on Thesis Committee

Dan Mastbergen                   Major Advisor (began Fall ’02)

Erik Booth                              Major Advisor (began Fall ’02)

Joel Lindstrom                       Major Advisor (Fall ’02, Amin advisee Spring ’03)

Chetan Dhatingan                 active in research again late ‘02

Darrin Avery                           on Thesis Committee

                     Tiok Agastra                        Ph.D. candidate in ChE, Co-Advisor with John

                                                                        Mandell